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Macro and Micro-Nutrient in Eggs
Eggs have been a staple in the human diet for thousands of years. From hunter-gatherers collecting eggs from the nests of wild birds, to the domestication of birds for more reliable access to egg supply, to today’s genetically selected birds and modern production facilities, eggs have long been recognized as a source of high quality. protein and other important nutrients.
Over the years, eggs have become an essential ingredient in many cuisines, due to their many functional properties, such as water retention, emulsifying and foaming. An egg is a self-contained and self-sufficient embryonic development chamber. At an adequate temperature, the developing embryo uses the wide range of essential nutrients in the egg for its growth and development. The necessary proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and functional nutrients are all present in sufficient quantities for the transition from fertilized cell to newborn chick, and the nutritional needs of a bird species are similar enough to human needs to make eggs ideal. a source of food for us. (The one essential human nutrient that eggs do not contain is ascorbic acid (vitamin C), because non-passerine birds have active guonolactone oxidase and synthesize ascorbic acid as needed. ) This article summarizes the varied nutritional contributions eggs make to the human diet.
Macro and Micro-Nutrient in Eggs
The levels of many nutrients in an egg are influenced by the age and breed or strain of hen as well as the season of the year and the composition of the food provided to the hen. While most variations in nutrients are relatively minor, the fatty acid composition of egg lipids can be significantly altered by changes in the hen’s diet. The exact amounts of many vitamins and minerals in an egg are determined, in part, by the nutrients provided in the hen’s diet. Chicken eggs contain 75.8% water, 12.6% proteins, 9.9% lipids, and 1.7% vitamins, minerals, and a small amount of carbohydrates. Eggs are classified in the protein food group, and egg protein is one of the highest quality proteins available. Almost all the lipids found in eggs are contained in the yolk, along with most of the vitamins and minerals. Of the small amount of carbohydrate (less than 1% by weight), half is in the form of glycoprotein and the rest as free glucose.
Egg proteins, which are distributed in both yolk and white (albumen), are nutritionally complete proteins containing all essential amino acids (EAA). Egg protein has a chemical score (EAA level in a protein food divided by the level found in an “ideal” protein food) of 100, a biological value (a measure of how efficiently dietary protein is turned into body tissue) of 94, and the highest protein efficiency ratio (a ratio of weight gain to protein consumed in young rats) of some dietary protein. The most important proteins found in egg yolk include low density lipoprotein (LDL), which makes up 65%, high density lipoprotein (HDL), phosvitin, and livetin. These proteins exist in a homogeneously emulsified fluid. Egg white is made up of about 40 different types of proteins. Egg albumin is the most important protein (54%) together with ovotransferrin (12%) and ovomucoid (11%). Other proteins of interest include flavoprotein, which binds riboflavin, avidin, which can bind and deactivate biotin, and lysozyme, which has a lytic action against bacteria.
A large egg yolk contains 4.5 g of lipid, consisting of triacylglycerides (65%), phospholipids (31%) and cholesterol (4%). Of the total phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) is the largest fraction and accounts for 26%. Phosphatidylethanolamine contributes another 4%. The fatty acid composition of eggyolk lipids depends on the fatty acid profile of the diet. The reported fatty acid profile of commercial eggs indicates that a large egg contains 1.55 g of saturated fatty acids, 1.91 g of monounsaturated fats and 0.68 g of polyunsaturated fatty acids. (Total fatty acids (4.14 g) are not equal to total lipids (4.5 g) due to the glycerol part of triacylglycerides and phospholipids and the phosphorylated parts of the phospholipids). Eggs have been reported to contain less than 0.05 g of trans fatty acids. Egg yolks also contain cholesterol (211mg per large egg) and the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin.
Eggs contain all essential vitamins except vitamin C, as the developing chick has no dietary requirements for this vitamin. The egg yolk contains the majority of the water-soluble vitamins and 100% of the fat-soluble vitamins. Riboflavin and niacin are concentrated in the albumen. The riboflavin in the egg albumin is bound to flavoprotein in a 1:1 molar ratio. Eggs are one of the few natural sources of vitamins D and B12. Egg vitamin E levels can be increased up to tenfold through dietary changes. While no single vitamin is found in very high amounts relative to its DRI value, it is the broad spectrum of vitamins that makes eggs nutritionally rich.
Eggs contain small amounts of all the minerals essential for life. Of particular importance is the iron found in egg yolks. Research evaluating the plasma sacrifice and transfer desaturation in 6-12-month-old children indicated that infants who ate egg yolks had better iron status than infants who did not. The study indicated that egg yolk can be a source of iron in a weaning diet for breastfed and formula-fed infants without increasing blood antibodies to yolk proteins. Dietary iron absorption from a specific food is determined by iron status, heme and non-heme iron content, and amounts of various dietary factors that affect iron absorption present in the whole meal. Limited information is available on the net effect of these factors in relation to egg fertilization availability. In addition to iron, eggs contain calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, copper and manganese. Egg yolks also contain iodine (25 mg per large egg), and this can be increased two to three times by including an iodine source in the feed. Egg selenium content can also be increased up to ninefold by dietary manipulations.
Choline was established as an essential nutrient in 1999 with recommended daily intakes (RDI) of 550mg for men and 450mg for women. The RDI for choline increases during pregnancy and lactation due to the high rate of choline transfer from the mother to the fetus and in breast milk. Animal studies indicate that choline plays an essential role in brain development, especially in the development of the memory centers of the fetus and newborn. Egg yolk lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) is an excellent source of dietary choline, providing 125mg of choline per large egg.
Egg yolk contains two xanthophylls (carotenes that contain an alcohol group) that have important health benefits – lutein and zeaxanthin. It is estimated that a large egg contains 0.33 mg of lutein and zeaxanthin; however, the content of these xanthophylls is completely dependent on the type of food provided to the hens. Yolk lutein levels can be increased up to tenfold by modifying the diet with calendula extract or purified lutein.
An indicator of the content of luteinþzeaxantin is the color of the egg yolk; the darker yellow-orange the yolk, the higher the content of xanthophylls. Studies have shown that egg yolk xanthophylls have a higher bioavailability than those from plant sources, probably because the lipid matrix of the egg yolk facilitates greater absorption. This increased bioavailability results in significant increases in plasma levels of lutein and zeaxanthin as well as increased macular pigment densities with egg feeding.
Eggs are one of the richest sources of dietary cholesterol, providing 215 mg per large egg. In the 1960s and 1970s the simplistic view that dietary cholesterol equaled blood cholesterol resulted in the belief that eggs were a major contributor to hypercholesterolemia and the associated risk of cardiovascular disease. While there remains some controversy regarding the role of dietary cholesterol in determining blood cholesterol levels, the majority of studies have shown that saturated fat, not dietary cholesterol, is the most important dietary determinant of plasma cholesterol levels (and eggs contain 1.5 g of saturated fat) and that neither dietary cholesterol nor egg consumption is significantly related to the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Across cultures, those countries with the highest egg consumption actually have the lowest rates of mortality from cardiovascular disease, and in-population studies have not shown a correlation between egg consumption and either plasma cholesterol levels or the incidence of heart disease. A 1999 study of more than 117,000 men and women followed for 8-14 years showed that the risk of coronary heart disease was the same whether the study subjects consumed less than one egg per week or more than one egg per day. Clinical studies show that dietary cholesterol has little influence on plasma cholesterol levels. Adding one egg per day to the diet would, on average, increase plasma total cholesterol levels by approximately 5mg dl_1 (0.13mmol/L). It is important to note, however, that the increase occurs both in the atherogenic LDL-cholesterol fraction (4mg dl_1 (0.10mmol/L)) and the anti-atherogenic HDL-cholesterol fraction (1 mg dl_1 (0.03mmol/L)), resulting in practically. no change in the LDL:HDL ratio, an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. The plasma lipoprotein cholesterol response to egg feeding, particularly any changes in the LDL:HDL ratio, varies with the individual and the baseline plasma lipoprotein cholesterol profile. Adding one egg per day to the diets of three hypothetical patients with different plasma lipid profiles results in very different effects on the LDL:HDL ratio. For the individual at low risk there is a greater effect than for the person at high risk, however in all cases the effect is quantitatively insignificant and would have little effect on their heart disease risk profile.
Overall, results from clinical studies indicate that egg consumption has little or no effect on cardiovascular disease risk. This is consistent with the results of a number of epidemiological studies. A common consumer misperception is that eggs from certain breeds of birds have low or no cholesterol. For example, eggs from Araucana chickens, a South American breed that lays a blue-green egg, were advertised as low-cholesterol eggs when, in fact, the cholesterol content of these eggs is 25% higher than that of commercial eggs. The amount of cholesterol in an egg is set by the developmental needs of the embryo and has proven very difficult to change substantially without resorting to hypocholesterolemic drug use. Necessary concerns regarding egg cholesterol content resulted in a steady decline in egg consumption during the 1970s, 1980s, and early 1990s, and limiting this important and affordable source of high-quality proteins and other nutrients could have had negative effects on well-being. . of many nutritionally “at risk” populations. Per capita consumption of eggs increased over the past decade in North America, Central America and Asia, remained relatively stable in South America and Africa, and decreased in Europe and Oceania. Overall, the world’s per capita consumption of eggs has slowly increased over the past decade, partly due to changing attitudes toward dietary cholesterol health concerns.
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