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Acne – Information, Causes, and Treatment Options
Acne is an inflammatory skin condition characterized by skin breakouts around hair follicles. It is a common disease that affects mainly teenagers, but can also affect adults, especially those between 20 and 30 years old. In these people, acne can appear as different types of acne such as comedones (blackheads), papules (red, hard bumps), pustules (grains of pus) and more rarely cysts and abscesses. The lesions are found on the face and less often on the back, chest, shoulders and neck. Acne requires treatment and there is no need to wait for nature to solve the problem, because it is very difficult to predict how long it will take to completely disappear. The treatment can prevent the development of scars or marks, thus improving the complexion of the skin and physical appearance.
Acne is due to a series of hormonal changes that occur during adolescence. During puberty, sebaceous glands (located deep in the skin) produce an oily material called sebum caused by testosterone (a male hormone). Sebum comes to the surface through small tubes (ducts) and their opening is a pore.
Obstruction of the sebaceous ducts causes it to retain sebum, forming pimples, which can be:
-White or closed
– Black or open (blacks)
The black color is due to the action of air on retained sebum in the pores. Sometimes an excess of retained sebum in the ducts and the duct walls swell and burst, dispensing the sebum into the skin, resulting in the formation of red, hard pimples, (internal) or abscesses. Along with this, the sebum is retained in an ideal breeding ground for skin bacteria, causing more radiation and inflammation.
Other causes of acne, especially in adults are:
– Polycystic ovary syndrome
– Cushing’s syndrome
– The use of anabolic steroids
– Keratinization disorders
– Use of medicines containing halogens, lithium, barbiturates or androgens.
Seasons: Better in summer and worse in spring and fall.
Menstruation: In almost all women acne occurs with the period.
Menopause: the hormonal changes of menopause can lead to a type of menopausal acne.
Nerves: stress, exams, lack of sleep, etc. Makes acne worse.
Constipation: makes acne worse or makes it more resistant to treatment. To avoid this:
– Food should be suitable and varied, based mainly on vegetables and vegetables (beetroot, spinach, cabbage, cauliflower, carrot, tomato, lettuce, endive, artichokes, lentils, beans, peas, etc.).
– Limit the consumption of certain foods such as meat, white bread, flour and chocolate.
– Drink large amounts of fluids (1-2 liters of water per day), especially in the morning after waking up (water or orange juice).
– Avoid or reduce the consumption of red wine.
– Avoid a sedentary lifestyle, try to exercise (walk or go to the gym before meals).
– Maintain the habit of taking stools at the same time, especially after breakfast.
Diet: Certain foods make acne worse. The most notable are: chocolate, nuts and derivatives, milk, cheese, yogurt and other dairy products, foods made with a lot of oil or butter, pizza, beer, alcohol, coffee, tea, spices, too much iodized salt, pork, seafood ( shrimp, oysters), citrus, and especially food that has been fried with butter or fat.
Fresh vegetables, fruits, juices and bread help to improve acne.
-Wash your skin daily to control the excess oil and bacteria that aggravate acne prone skin.
– Facial cleansing.
-Wash your hair often and comb it back to keep it away from the face. Oilier hair should be washed more often. If you have dandruff you should use an anti-dandruff shampoo at least 3 times a week, and inform your dermatologist.
-Men with acne in the beard area should try electric and non-electric razors to see which irritates their skin less. Shaving should be polite so as not to cut into pimples, and the blade should be as sharp as possible.
-Do not apply pressure, scratch or rub lesions, as this can increase the damage to the skin.
– Look at diet.
-Avoid using greasy creams.
-Exfoliate once a week to stimulate cell renewal, unclog pores and remove dead cells and retained sebum. This produces smooth skin without blemishes.
There are different options for the treatment of acne:
-Prevent the formation of new lesions and heal old ones.
-Topical medicines that dry fat and favor the removal of skin:
. Glycolic, salicylic, azelaic and mandelic acids
. Benzoyl peroxide sulfur
. Oral contraceptives
. Topical antibiotics: clindamycin, erythromycin.
. Oral antibiotics: doxycycline, minocycline, limecycline.
. Vitamin A derivatives (tretinoin, retinol)
Acne improves with sun exposure, which is why clinical treatment with UV lamps is also recommended. Patients are advised to receive treatment 2-3 times a week. The treatment can be administered together with lasers in cases of great inflammation to prevent scarring.
Some patients with acne have unsightly scars (pits and red spots), especially on the face and back. The scars can be improved with a chemical peel performed by qualified personnel.
Peeling is done by applying lotion with concentrated fruit acids (glycolic, lactic, citric or salicylic) to the face with gauze to stimulate the skin’s natural repair mechanisms. Doing this will give smooth skin, and stimulate collagen synthesis to fill wrinkles and scars. The peels also help to get rid of pimples and blackheads. The procedure involves applying fruit acid to the face every 1-2 weeks up to 6-8 times. Afterwards, a maintenance treatment should be applied every 2-3 months. There are other treatments for scars such as lasers and capacitive currents (INDIBA) that are completely painless and without side effects. In these cases, the patient must go to the clinic 2 times a week, for at least 2 months. There is also a procedure called laser – carbon laser abrasion, which is now the most recommended for acne.
– Wash your face 2 times a day with a suitable soap. After applying the indicated products.
– Avoid certain foods: chocolate or cocoa derivatives, nuts (sunflower seeds, almonds, etc.), seafood, strong cheeses (Roquefort, Camembert, etc.).
– Avoid the contact of hair and facial skin (bangs, long hair, etc.).
– Avoid using cosmetics until the acne gets better. It is recommended to use oil-free makeup.
– Avoid greasy sunscreens. Use formulas with alcohol content, so as not to block pores.
– Wash your hair regularly 3 times a week.
– Avoid frequently supporting your head with your hands (passive study, etc.).
– Avoid conflicting emotional situations such as stress, nervousness and fatigue.
– Avoid skin exposure to greasy or oily environments (kitchens, etc.).
– Change pillows often.
– Develop the habit of taking care of the skin, because beauty accentuates your image.
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