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Are 3-5 Year Old Children Capable of Developing Reading Skills?
Reading is a complex set of processes through which meaning is derived from written texts. Through the reading process, a set of skills is developed that requires the learner to use critical and creative thinking processes. Processing skills, such as encoding and decoding, are used to combine related sources of information. A child who has been exposed to a wide vocabulary learns from different resources and experiences to create meaning from the spoken and written word. A child’s experience depends on his exposure to spoken and written language. Exposure allows the child to create meaning that is directly related to their experiences through the reading process.
There are two different points of view; the perspective that emergent reader instruction begins at age 5 and not earlier and more recent research showing that 3-year-olds are capable of understanding and developing emergent reading skills. Neuman and Dickinson’s findings reflect the opinions of school officials and parents and represent the need for science-based instruction.
Marie Clay in 2007 introduced the term emergent literacy to describe the behaviors observed in children when they use books and writing materials to imitate the activities of reading and writing, even if the children cannot read and write in the conventional sense. According to many researchers, children’s literacy development begins long before children receive formal instruction in elementary school.
Emerging reader programs may involve a structured reading program in which children learn through prescribed lessons. These lessons examine the concept that children may need to begin a formalized reading program beginning at ages 3-5, particularly in low-income areas, where exposure to the academic style of English is limited. Limited exposure to English limits the child as an adult. Leaders may be aware of the need for the target age group to be exposed to phonemic awareness including letters and letter sounds. These children can also be taught to write their names and several letters of the alphabet. At first, they do not understand what they are writing, but eventually they are able to distinguish between letters and letter sounds if they are taught in a formal classroom setting.
The reading has become the focus of much attention, both from the federal government and from researchers. Almost 40% of children across the country fail to read at a basic level. Report cards indicate that children are not able to encode or decode at a level necessary to be successful. Reading deficits are greatest among ethnic and racial minorities (ie, African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans). Almost 60% of ethnic and racial minority students fail to read at expected levels.
Vygotsky (1986) showed that the process of learning to read is a movement from interpersonal to intrapersonal utilization of skills and knowledge. Children begin to develop an internal language, which then develops into speech and words that have a representative meaning. An example of language construction is where a child substitutes the word lubalow for the word stereo. Lubalow has no meaning for people who hear the word, but the child and his caregivers understand the meaning of the word lubalow. Children construct the world around them which helps them in the construction of language. Children develop strategies to make sense of written language that they themselves have devised by putting together the limited information they have in their own way. There is a distinct difference between language development and vocabulary. Often, children use words that are not understood by the child, but the child chooses to use these words as if there is a basis of prior knowledge. This is the beginning of understanding the use of vocabulary.
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