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Dutch Masters of the Golden Age Painting
The New Dutch Republic
The Netherlands became a Spanish possession beginning in 1556 when its crown passed to the foreign king Philip II of Spain.
William the Silent (April 24, 1533 – July 10, 1584) was the Father of the Dutch Republic.
He was the main leader of the Dutch Revolt that saw the Netherlands emerge as a state during the Eighty Years’ War (1568-1648), declaring its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1581.
The new Dutch Republic was proclaimed in 1588.
The Dutch Republic achieved world power in the 17th century and became a leading power in European trade, science and art.
The Dutch East India Company (United East India Company), was a megacorporation that prospered for most of the 17th century as part of the powerful Dutch East India trading empire (the today Indonesia).
It was dissolved in 1799.
Capitalism was the economic and political system that expanded trade, attracted immigrants and stimulated the growth of major cities and ports.
History of Dutch Painting
The Dutch Golden Age from about 1620 to 1680 developed a very distinct style of painting depicting the natural world that favored landscapes such as the dunes along the western sea coast and rivers with surrounding meadows where the cattle, often with a vision of a city in the distance.
They depicted everyday life with Dutch proverbs and sayings that convey a moralistic message.
Between 1605 and 1635, more than 100,000 paintings by painters such as Frans Hals and Jacob van Ruisdael, Lieven de Key and Jan Steen were produced in Haarlem, capital of the province of North Holland with paintings depicting the glorious history and products of the city.
Many portrait paintings were also commissioned by wealthy individuals during the 17th century.
The Dutch words “stilleven” and “landschap” which were adopted into English as “still life” and “paisaje” on which art in Europe depended for the next two centuries.
The golden age never really recovered from the Franco-Dutch War (1672-1678) causing the republic to collapse in 1795 and its colonial empire was eclipsed by England.
Important Masters of the Golden Age
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (1606 – 1669)
Rembrandt is considered one of the greatest artists in the history of Baroque painting.
He was a prolific master in three media – draftsman, painter and printmaker who also taught many important Dutch painters.
His subject matter ranged from portraits and self-portraits to landscapes, genre scenes, allegorical and historical scenes, and biblical and mythological themes as well as animal studies.
Famous paintings by Rembrandt
* The Night Watch (1642)
The Night Watch is famous for three things: its colossal size (363 cm × 437 cm (11.91 ft × 14.34 ft)), the dramatic use of light and shadow (tenebrism), and the perception of movement in what has traditionally been static. military group portrait.
* The Jewish Bride (1665)
The Jewish bride, represented as Isaac and Rebecca, the sitters emphasized their fidelity and piety and that their marriage was happy and virtuous.
* The Tempest on the Sea of Galilee (1633)
An oil painting on canvas depicting the Biblical Story of Jesus calming the storm on the Sea of Galilee.
It is Rembrandt’s only seascape.
* Head of Christ (1648)
The Head of Christ is a painting from 1648 that can be found in the Gemäldegalerie in Berlin.
*Bathsheba at her Bath (1654)
The painting hangs in the Louvre depicting King David watching Bathsheba bathe from the Old Testament.
Johannes Vermeer (1632 – 1675)
The Dutch artist of the golden age, Johannes Vermeer was a Baroque painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle class life and his masterful use of light in his work.
“Almost all of his paintings,” Hans Koningsberger wrote, “are apparently set in two small rooms in his house in Delft; they show the same furniture and decorations in different arrangements and often depict the same people, mostly women.”
About 36 of his paintings exist and are among the most revered treasures to be found now, in the world’s finest museums.
Famous paintings include:
*View of Delft (1661)
* Girl with a Pearl Earring (1665)
* The Milk Maid (1658)
* The little street (1658)
Frans Hals (1582 – 1666)
Frans Hals the Elder was a Baroque painter who is best known for his portraits of wealthy citizens and large group portraits depicting local civic guardians.
His paintings depict banquets, meetings of officials, guildsmen, local councillors, itinerant gamblers and singers, lords, fish, tavern heroes.
Their wedding photos show the traditional husband on the left, and the wife on the right.
The Laughing Cavalier painting (1624) is one of Hals most famous works and the Banquet of the Officers (1616) of the Militia Company of St. Adrian in 1627 captures each character in a variety of poses and facial expressions .
Some of his many paintings include:
* Banquet of the Officers (1616)
* Laughing Knight (1624)
* The Laughing Boy (1525)
* Officers and Sergeants (1639)
Jan Steen (1626 – 1679)
Jan Havickszoon Steen (1626 – 3 February 1679) was a 17th-century Dutch painter whose works included portraits, historical and biblical subjects, genre paintings, and paintings referencing ancient proverbs or Dutch literature.
Steen often used members of his family as models.
Famous paintings include:
*Harpsichord lesson (1660)
* The Dancing Couple (1663)
* Feast of Saint Nicholas (1665)
* The Happy Family (1668)
Rachel Ruysch (1664 – 1750)
Rachel Ruysch was a Dutch still life painter from the Northern Netherlands who specialized in flowers.
Her painting career spans more than six decades and she is the most documented woman painter of the Dutch Golden Age.
He began to paint from the age of fifteen, until the age of eighty-three and died at the age of eighty-six.
Rachel Ruysch’s famous paintings include:
*Roses, convolvulus, poppies and other flowers in an urn on a stone frame (1688)
* Flowers in a Vase (1699)
*Flowers in a glass vase (1704)
* Still life with flowers (1726)
Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1525 – 1569)
Pieter Bruegel was a Flemish (Flanders region) artist and printmaker of Dutch Renaissance paintings known for his landscapes and countryside scenes.
He often disguised himself as a peasant to attend local festivities such as county fairs and weddings to develop his subject.
Often referred to as “Peasant Bruegel”, to distinguish him from the later painters in his family which included his son Pieter Brueghel the Younger (1564-1638).
His paintings generally depict peasants with a landscape background, religious works such as The Conversion of Paul and The Sermon of St. John the Baptist and religious proverbs that were typical of the Northern Renaissance.
Famous paintings include:
The Reapers (1565)
* The Hay Harvest (1565)
The Peasants’ Wedding (1567)
*The Sermon of Saint John (1564)
Hendrick Terbrugghen (1588-1629)
Hendrick Jansz ter Brugghen (or Terbrugghen) was a Dutch painter who was one of the followers of Caravaggio (Italian painter of the late 1500s and early 1600s) – the so-called Utrecht Caravaggists.
His genre scenes include half-length figures of drinkers or musicians, religious images and group portraits.
Famous paintings include:
* Bagpipes (1624)
* The Singing Lute (1624)
*Crucifixion with the Virgin and Saint John (1625)
* The Denial of Saint Peter (1628)
Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)
Rubens is considered the most influential artist of the Flemish Baroque tradition in Europe during the 17th century and was also the favorite painter of his great Spanish patron, Philip IV.
During his life he produced masterpieces of antiquity from classical and Christian history, mythology, altarpieces, portraits and landscapes.
He was also a prolific cartoonist for the Flemish tapestry workshop.
Their patrons included royalty and churches.
* The Elevation of the Cross (1610)
* Samson and Delilah (1610)
*The Descent from the Cross (1614)
* Self-portrait (1639)
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